Title Disaster in the East. We also recommend this article. Der Erste Weltkrieg auf dem Balkan. Perspektiven der Forschung. Besatzung und Widerstand im k. Prelude to the First World War. The Balkan Wars Der vergessene Weltkrieg. Europas Osten Teil 3: Teil 1: Armies in the Balkans From the Dardanelles to Mesopotamia. Outside this system are the schools under the Direct Subsidy Scheme and private international schools. In addition to the public post-secondary institutions there are also a number of private higher institutions which offer higher diplomas and associate degree courses for those who fail to enter a college for a degree study so as to boost their qualification of education, some of whom can have a second chance of getting into a university if they have a good performance in these sub-degree courses.
There are 13 private hospitals and more than 40 public hospitals in Hong Kong. There are two medical schools in the territory, one based at the Chinese University of Hong Kong and the other at the University of Hong Kong. However, Hong Kong has been developing its own postgraduate medical institutions, in particular the Hong Kong Academy of Medicine, and this is gradually taking over the responsibility for all postgraduate medical training in the territory.
Since , there have been growing concerns that mothers-to-be from mainland China, in a bid to obtain the right of abode in Hong Kong and the benefits that come with it, have saturated the neonatal wards of the city's hospitals both public and private. This has led to protest from local pregnant women for the government to remedy the issue, as they have found difficulty in securing a bed space for giving birth and routine check-ups.
Other concerns in the decade of — relate to the workload medical staff experience; and medical errors and mishaps, which are frequently highlighted in local news. Hong Kong is frequently described as a place where " East meets West ", reflecting the culture's mix of the territory's Chinese mainly Cantonese roots with Western mainly British influences from its time as a British colony. Hong Kong is a recognized global centre of trade and calls itself an "entertainment hub". Hong Kong is the centre for Cantopop music, which draws its influence from other forms of Chinese music and Western genres, and has a multinational fanbase.
The government's Leisure and Cultural Services Department subsidises and sponsors international performers brought to Hong Kong. Many international cultural activities are organised by the government, consulates, and privately. There are three local and a number of foreign suppliers of cable and satellite services. Magazine and newspaper publishers in Hong Kong distribute and print in both Chinese and English, with a focus on sensationalism and celebrity gossip. Hong Kong offers wide recreational and competitive sport opportunities despite its limited land area.
It sends delegates to international competitions such as the Olympic Games and Asian Games , and played host to the equestrian events during the Summer Olympics. Hong Kong's steep terrain and extensive trail network with expansive views attracts hikers, and its rugged coastline provides many beaches for swimming.
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Sports in Hong Kong are a significant part of its culture. Due mainly to British influence going as far back as the late 19th century, Hong Kong had an earlier introduction to Western athletics compared to other Asia regions. Football, cricket, basketball, swimming, badminton, table tennis, cycling and running have the most participants and spectators. As of [update] , there were 32 Hong Kong athletes from seven sports ranking in world's Top 20, 29 athletes in six sports in Asia top 10 ranking.
Moreover, Hong Kong athletes with disabilities are equally impressive in their performance as of [update] , having won four world championships and two Asian Championships. According to Emporis , there are 1, skyscrapers in Hong Kong, which puts the city at the top of world rankings. The high density and tall skyline of Hong Kong's urban area is due to a lack of available sprawl space, with the average distance from the harbour front to the steep hills of Hong Kong Island at 1.
This lack of space causes demand for dense, high-rise offices and housing. Thirty-six of the world's tallest residential buildings are in Hong Kong. As a result of the lack of space and demand for construction, few older buildings remain, and the city is becoming a centre for modern architecture. According to the Emporis website, the city skyline has the biggest visual impact of all world cities. There are many development plans in place, including the construction of new government buildings ,  waterfront redevelopment in Central,  and a series of projects in West Kowloon.
All twenty-eight member states of the European Union are also members of the WTO in their own right:. See Template:Administrative divisions of the Republic of China instead. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Jump to: navigation , search. This article is about Hong Kong as a special administrative region of China. For other uses, see Hong Kong disambiguation. For other uses, see HK disambiguation.
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Section 3 12 states in part: "The above-stated basic policies of the People's Republic of China … will remain unchanged for 50 years. Retrieved 6 January Civil Service Bureau. The Legislative Council Commission. Parliament of the United Kingdom. Retrieved 26 February Census and Statistics Department. February Retrieved 5 September Census and Statistics Department Hong Kong.
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International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 4 June Government of Hong Kong. Retrieved 10 June United Nations Development Programme. Retrieved 14 December Hong Kong Herbarium. Retrieved 29 May South China Morning Post. Basic Law Promotion Steering Committee. Retrieved 10 November University of Virginia Press. Long Finance. September Retrieved 10 December Retrieved 6 June Monetary and Economic Department.
Bank for International Settlements : 5. Retrieved 3 July The Independent. Retrieved 22 May The Top 10 of Everything Viewed on 4 August Huffington Post. Transport Department , Hong Kong Government. Archived from the original on 7 July Retrieved 13 July Emerald Group Publishing.
Retrieved 29 April Archived from the original on 30 June Retrieved 7 October Harvard University Press. Placenames of the World. Retrieved 1 September China's Imperial Way. China Books and Periodicals. Archived from the original PDF on 1 February Retrieved 3 January Hong Kong Journal of Applied Linguistics : Hong Kong Government. Retrieved 29 September Hong Kong Archaeological Society. January Archived from the original on 3 March Retrieved 21 August People's Daily in Chinese.
New Asia Monthly in Chinese. New Asia College. Guangxi Ethnic Group Research in Chinese. Archived from the original PDF on 1 May Invest Nanhai. Retrieved 26 August Book of Han in Chinese. Volume Relics From South in Chinese. Southeast Asia: A Historical Encyclopedia. Hong Kong Yearbook. Retrieved 27 August From Sui to Ming in Chinese. Education Bureau , Hong Kong Government: 40— Archived from the original on 29 August Retrieved 29 August Hong Kong University Press. Hong Kong. Gareth Stevens. Westview Press. Cambridge University Press. University of California Press.
Retrieved 25 April Hong Kong Museum of History. Archived from the original PDF on 18 April Retrieved 30 August The Hong Kong Story. Oxford University Press. Retrieved on 16 February Archived 6 July at the Wayback Machine. Old Hong Kong. Volume II: — 5th ed. FormAsia Books. Global Times. Archived from the original on 23 July Retrieved 31 August Political change and the crisis of legitimacy in Hong Kong.
University of Hawaii Press. Archived from the original on 15 October Archived from the original on 11 January The New York Times. Retrieved 20 October The growth and structure of international trade since the Second World War. Underground Pride. Mass Transit Railway Corporation, People's Daily. Retrieved 1 February Nova Publishers. World Health Organization. Retrieved 4 October BBC News. Retrieved 24 August What next? The Standard. Archived from the original on 22 May Retrieved 17 September Archived from the original on 26 May Archived from the original on 13 May The Guardian.
Retrieved 30 November The Economist. Retrieved 6 September New York Times. Retrieved 4 January Financial Times.
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Retrieved 31 July TIME , 24 June June The End of Empire: Dependencies since Greenwood Publishing. Hong Kong Human Rights Monitor. Retrieved 20 January Journal of Contemporary China. Bloomberg L. Retrieved 6 October Hong Kong Herald. Department of Justice , Hong Kong Government. Archived from the original on 13 September Retrieved 20 September Psychology Press. Hong Kong Judiciary. Archived from the original PDF on 16 October Retrieved 20 July Archived from the original PDF on 4 December Retrieved 14 May Department of Justice, Hong Kong Government. Archived from the original on 4 September Retrieved 19 August US Department of State.
Archived from the original on 23 January Retrieved 2 March But the increase of combatant ships had been visualized, and the building programs were undertaken before the war began. It flourished with increased momentum during the early part of the war, long before the minimum auxiliary requirements could be correctly estimated and the rush of procurement started. The original planers had done their best, but it was not until the urgency for auxiliaries developed as a vital.
Merchant ships were converted whenever possible, and this, with concentrated efforts to provide drydocks and other special construction, produced every required type in numbers that would have been considered preposterous only a short time before. Calhoun commanded the Base Force there and had his flag in the U. Overnight his duties increased enormously. Thousands of survivors of the attack had nothing but the clothes they wore, which in many cases consisted of underwear only. These naval personnel had to be clothed, fed, quartered, re-recorded, and put on new payrolls with the utmost expedition in order to make them available for assignment anywhere.
There were hundreds of requests for repairs, ammunition, and supplies of all kinds. Calhoun expanded his staff to three times its original size, and despite the excitement, confusion, diversity of opinion, uncertainty, and shortages of everything, he brilliantly mustered order from what could easily have been chaos. Calhoun, soon promoted to vice admiral, continued as Commander of the Service Force until , and the remarkable cooperation, hustle, and assistance rendered by his command are unforgettable. This was especially true in the advanced areas.
Any duty to which the term "service" could be applied was instantly undertaken on demand; this contributed enormously to the fleet efficiency, and, in consequence, to the progress of the campaign. No single command contributed so much in winning the war with Japan as did the Service Force of the Pacific Fleet. It served all commands, none of which could have survived alone. Neither could all of them combined have won without the help of the Service Force. It is deserving of much higher public praise than it ever received, and, most of all, its activities should be a matter of deepest concern and study by all who aspire to high fleet commands.
At the time of the Pearl Harbor attack the Base Force had a few more vessels than in , but otherwise was substantially unchanged. Crosse , which had been established in June of to give quicker and more direct service on the west coast and to aid in more efficient procurement and shipment for the mid-Pacific. Squadron Two included hospital ships, fleet motion-picture exchange, repair ships, salvage ships, and tugs.
Squadron Four had the transports and the responsibility for training. This was the tiny nucleus of what eventually became the great Amphibious Force, or Forces. Squadron Six took care of all target-practice firing and of the towing of targets, both surface and aerial. Squadron Eight had the responsibility for the supply and distribution to the fleet of all its fuels, food, and ammunition.
Growth and changes came. Headquarters had already moved ashore from the U. Argonne to the Pearl Harbor Navy Yard, and later moved again to the new administration building of the Commander in Chief Pacific, in the Makalapa area outside the navy yard. Two years later, in July of , the Service Force moved into its own building, a huge three-story, foot structure adjacent to the CinCPac Headquarters.
The organizational and administrative changes were dictated by the increasing requirements of the war. Squadron Four was decommissioned and its transports given to the Amphibious Force, as already noted. By the summer of the rapidly changing conditions of the war caused a further reorganization, and Service Force was realigned into four major divisions: Service Squadrons Two, Six, and Eight, and Fleet Maintenance Office.
Except for some additional duties, the functions of the three numbered squadrons remained unchanged. The Fleet Maintenance Office took over all hull, machinery, alteration, and improvement problems involving battleships, carriers, cruisers, and Service Force vessels, while the Service Force Pacific Subordinate Command at San Francisco continued its original functions and expanded as the tempo of the war mounted.
It became the logistic agency for supplying all South Pacific bases. By August of , operations there were of such critical nature, with the campaign against the enemy in the Solomons and Guadalcanal about to begin, that the Service Force South Pacific Force was authorized to deal direct with Commander in Chief, Commander Service Force Pacific,. As the war went on, the number of vessels assigned to the Service Force went steadily upward. With each new campaign our needs increased, and so did the number of ships.
By September of the Service Force had vessels listed, and in March no less than vessels had been assigned, of them still under construction or undergoing organization and training. Much of this increase was in patrol craft for Squadron Two and barges for Squadron Eight. Barges and lighters of all types were being completed rapidly, but moving them from the United States to the areas of use was a problem. Having no means of propulsion, they had to be towed out to Pearl Harbor, and thence still farther westward, in the slowest of convoys.
The departure of merchant ships and tugs hauling ungainly looking lighters and barges was not so inspiring a sight as that of a sleek man-of-war gliding swiftly under the Golden Gate Bridge and standing out to sea. Yet these barges, ugly as they were proved invaluable in support of operations at advanced anchorages. A new Squadron Four, entirely different from its predecessor, was commissioned in October and sent to Funafuti in the Ellice Islands to furnish logistic support to the fleet. In February of , Squadron Ten of a similar nature went to Majuro in the Marshalls, soon absorbed the Service Force until the end of the war.
Just a year later - February - Service Force had been assigned 1, vessels of all types, with of them still to report; and by the end of July , a few weeks before hostilities ended, it had no less than 2, ships, including those of Service Force Seventh Fleet, over which administrative control had been established in June. There were planes in the Utility Wing. The total of personnel was 30, officers and , enlisted men, or approximately one-sixth of the entire naval service at the peak of the war. Squadron Twelve, nicknamed "Harbor stretcher," had been commissioned in March for the primary purpose of increasing depths in channels and harbors where major fleet units would anchor, or where coral reefs and shallow water created serious navigational hazards.
By far the largest operation Twelve undertook was at Guam. Six was the third link in a chain of service squadrons with the duty of remaining constantly near the striking forces or close behind them as they moved nearer Japan. Eight hauled the supplies from the west coast and the Caribbean areas to bases, anchorages, and lagoons in the forward area. Ten then took hold, but even its fine services were not as close as desired to task forces and major combat units when they wished to remain at sea for indefinite periods, and take no time between strikes to return to newly established anchorages in what had been enemy territory a short time before.
So Squadron Ten in such cases passed on its supply ships to Six as ammunition, fuel, and provisions were needed, and the transfers were all made at sea. After discharging into the combat groups, the empty supply ships were passed back by Six to Ten to be refilled, or still farther back to Eight, which resupplied them from the west coast, Hawaiian, or other areas.
There was a fleet chaplain who had a similar two-hat set-up. The operating squadrons, coordinated with each other and organized as self-sufficient commands for internal regulations, were separate from these sections. Each one had its own commander, chief of staff, and appropriate administrative, communications, operations, supply, and maintenance sections.
This latter officer controlled the usual staff functions and several special ones: Postal Officer, Legal Officer, Public Relations later Public Information , and so on. This rearrangement into two types of organization within the Service Force had a sound reason behind it. The earlier squadron scheme tended to narrow the use of the vessels assigned to activities of that squadron only.
With the section scheme, in which vessels were all under control of the operations office, the broadest possible use of the vessels to meet special problems of any section could be more readily made. At any rate, the section scheme was gaining favor over the squadron when hostilities ended, and the functions of the various squadrons were being absorbed by the sections.
The actual change-over to the final section organization was not, however, made complete until the fighting was over. The Colorado was already undergoing overhaul at Bremerton. When the work was finished, this group assembled on 31 March at San Francisco. There they were joined by the New Mexico , Mississippi , and Idaho , which had been rushed from the Atlantic. Together with a squadron of destroyers which had no tender, this seven-ship force based on San Francisco until late in May.
The ships were serviced almost entirely from shore facilities. With the exception of targets, target-towing vessels, and planes they were given very little floating service. On 14 April the force left port with the possibility of being used to assist in stopping the Japanese in their South Pacific drive toward Australia. No train group of supply vessels was available, so the ships were crammed with all the fuel, food, and ammunition they could hold. So heavily overloaded were they at the start that they were three to four feet deeper in the water than they were ever meant to be.
The third or armored decks were all below the water line; none of the ships could have withstood much damage either above or below water. The Coral Sea action was fought before they could take part in it, the enemy backed off, and the force was not called upon. After staying at sea until their fuel was nearly gone and the fresh provisions exhausted, the ships returned to California at San Pedro. No one concerned with it will ever forget the servicing of this force there.
The San Pedro base had not been used by the fleet for 2 years, and. Upon notification of the prospective arrival, and the stores and fuel required, the base authorities called upon the citizens and local firms for action. The response was a magnificent demonstration of patriotic support by the entire community. Rich and poor, celebrities and unknowns, worked side by side on docks and vessels of all sorts, including yachts, operated in many instances by their owners.
The job was completed in good time. Of course, there was no problem of resupply of ammunition because the force had not been in action. If there had been, no doubt it could have been solved by the "incredible Yankee resourcefulness" of the Californians. However, the point to be observed in this maneuver is that the Navy was unprepared at this fleet base to do an efficient job of logistics for a small force of its ships, mainly because of its lack of floating equipment.
In fact, the Navy was unprepared to do the job at all without the wholehearted community assistance. This battleship force continued to base on San Francisco until midsummer of , when it moved to Pearl Harbor. Our Asiatic Fleet had meanwhile moved south from the Philippines and into the Java area, joining with the British cruisers Exeter , Hobart , Perth , and Electra , which were accompanied by several destroyers, and the Dutch cruisers of the East Indies Force, DeRuyter , Java , and Tromp , also with a few destroyers.
Many of these British and Dutch vessels were in use for convoying to and from Singapore, and real concentration in full strength was not attained until near the end. What joint action occurred was poorly coordinated, not only in tactics but in basing and servicing. Our submarines, however, based first at Darwin, later at Fremantle, West Australia. The two forces. On 12 December the two cruisers left the formation and proceeded on special duty at greater speed.
The ships were in hostile waters, had no intelligence of the enemy's whereabouts, and everyone was keenly alert, every eye strained for possible danger. At , the Langley suddenly opened fire on a suspicious object, range 6,, first spot up The dimly seen object turned out to be the planet Venus, which is sometimes visible during daylight in that particular atmosphere.
No hits were made! On 13 December the light cruiser Marblehead Captain A. Robinson joined, and the next day the whole detachment anchored in Balikpapan, Borneo, where the merchant liner President Madison , three Dutch tankers, and two British ships were already moored. Later submarine tenders Holland and Otus and cruisers Houston and Boise came in, together with the converted yacht Isabel , the auxiliary Gold Star , ocean tug Whippoorwill , the small seaplane tender Heron , the converted destroyer seaplane tender William B.
Preston , and a few small craft. All the ships were fueled here, and the oilers Trinity and Pecos refilled with oil and gasoline. Admiral Glassford divided his Task Force Five into two groups on the basis of speed. The fast group was headed by Captain S. Robinson in the Boise , the slower commanded by Captain A. Robinson in the Marblehead , and all, including the flagship Houston , sailed for Makassar in the Celebes, N. There Admiral Glassford wished to hold preliminary conferences with the Dutch and British.
The two groups remained at Makassar, holding drills and refueling, until 22 December, when they steamed out for their respective areas. The auxiliaries went to Darwin, which was soon found to be too far away, and too hazardous as well, to be any proper logistic base. Patrol Wing Ten had had rough going from the start, both from operational hardships and from the enemy. The Heron , Childs , and William B. Preston did most of the servicing for these squadrons. The Australian command was cordial and the two organizations exchanged some operational and material support, but neither was strong enough to do what was called for in either reconnaissance or offensive strikes.
On 15 January , 26 Japanese bombers and 10 fighters attacked Ambon. We lost 3 patrol planes and had others damaged. The next day, Patrol Squadron , of which only 4 planes were left, was ordered to Soerabaja. Patrol Squadron 22 held on for a few days longer at Kendari. On the 24th the Childs barely escaped a Japanese task force there, and it was clear that the end was not far off.
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Given another month of attention at the hands of an enemy who held control of the air whenever he chose to exercise it, no amount of logistics could save the situation. What was needed desperately and did not have was air power - bombers, fighters, and patrol - in sufficient strength to fight it out with the oncoming Japanese. The other auxiliaries were designated as the Train and sent to Darwin, which by order of the Chief of Naval Operations in Washington was made the logistic base.
Since it was apparent that Darwin was too far away, the Trinity was used in some of the bays nearer the scene of operations. Later the oiler Pecos and the commercial tanker George D. Henry were taken from Darwin and put to more active use. Soerabaja was the main operating base until the final 3 weeks of the defense campaign in the Netherlands East Indies. The Train consisted of the flagship submarine tender Holland Captain J.
Gregory , with Captain W. Lademan ; the seaplane tender Langley Commander R. McConnell ; the oiler Pecos Commander E. Abernethy ; the destroyer tender Blackhawk Commander G. Harriss ; the small seaplane tender Heron Lieutenant W. Kabler ; the converted destroyer seaplane tenders Childs Commander J.
Pratt and William B. Preston Lieutenant Commander E. Grant ; and the converted patrol yacht Isabel Lieutenant John W. On 18 January the first refueling at sea in this campaign took place when the Trinity oiled the destroyer Alden at a speed of 10 knots. Again the tanker, on 7 and 8 February, refueled six escorting destroyers at 9. Four days previous - 3 February - the Japanese had bombed us out of Soerabaja, and on the 10th practically the entire Asiatic Fleet, with. Train, had gathered at Tjilatjap, Java. But there was not security anywhere. A week later, on 17 February, the Trinity had to go all the way to Abadan, Iran, for oil.
The Japanese had shut off or captured every East Indian source except a very small supply from the interior of Java, so this dangerous voyage of more than 5, miles was necessary. The oiler Pecos was also scheduled to refill in the Persian Gulf, but was sunk - with the Langley survivors on board - by the enemy on 1 March, just after getting started for Colombo, Ceylon. The Train, in its short 10 days at Tjilatjap, put in some much-needed work on the worn, racked, and hard pressed ships of our striking force, and then most of its own vessels had to be sent off the Exmouth Gulf, West Australia, for the jig was nearly up in Dutch waters.
Usually ample fuel oil was available for this force, and some of the Dutch tankers were very efficient, but the method of distribution practiced by the Dutch bases was slow. Much of the oil was stored in the interior. The service from our tankers was faster, but in the circumstances these tankers could not be made available to all. Toward the last there was a shortage because of the dependency the naval ports had placed upon peacetime delivery from Borneo and Sumatra, rather than upon full development of interior Javanese oil sources.
The Australian cruiser Hobart , for example, though undamaged, could not participate in the Java Sea battle on 27 February because she could not get fuel. Tjilitjap was the operating base for both Dutch and American striking forces after we were bombed out of Soerabaja.
It was inadequate, but of course it was only a matter of days before it too became untenable. Each successive raid by or encounter with Japanese planes left us with fewer ships. After her severe mauling on 4 February, the cruiser Marblehead was patched up, mainly by her own crew, so that she could start for home by way of Ceylon and the Cape of Good Hope. It speaks well for the initiative and resourcefulness of the shot-up crew of the Marblehead - and the men of some other vessels - that the patchwork enabled the ship to function. The destroyer Stewart , however, had to be abandoned in a bombed and disabled condition in a bomb-wrecked Dutch drydock.
The Japanese salvaged her and put her in service, only to lose her to our Navy in action. Grounding had damaged the Boise on 21 January so badly that she was beyond repair by available facilities. She was accordingly cannibalized - stripped, for the benefit of her sisters - of all ammunition and stores and sent limping off to Ceylon. He had 5 cruisers and 10 destroyers left out of the combined Dutch, British, and American forces, not counting submarines and their tenders, and the old aircraft tender Langley , sunk a few days later. The after turret of the Houston was inoperative as a result of bombing on 4 February, and there was not facility for repairing it before going into action.
Doorman failed, and the order was given to leave the Java Sea. Only 4 American destroyers could do so; all the other ships were sunk by the Japanese. Orders for the withdrawal to the Australian coast for some of the personnel on shore were accomplished only by extreme methods, as we did not have enough vessels. Not even the little shore material there for servicing could be moved.
In this campaign there never was sufficient force available to stop or greatly delay the Japanese. No matter how adequate the logistics might have been, the outcome would not have been very different. This brief outline merely shows the relationship logistics bore to the situation. Fletcher with Task Force Seventeen joined in raiding some of the Japanese-held islands of the Marshall and Gilbert groups.
Louis ; the fleet oiler Sabine ; and five destroyers. They were guarding the landing of Marines in Samoa when the raids were ordered. While at sea the carriers and large vessels refueled on 17 January from the tankers Platte Captain R.
Pacific War | Revolvy
Henkle and Sabine Commander H. This was repeated on 23 and 28 January. These raids seem to warrant a continuance, so on 14 February Halsey with the carrier Enterprise , two cruisers, seven destroyers, and the tanker Sabine sailed from Pearl Harbor for a raid on Wake Island. He should have had another tanker in case he lost the Sabine , but unfortunately at that time tankers were almost as scarce as carriers.
The strike was made on the 24th. Wake was bombed and shelled with excellent results and with the loss of only one plane. The Sabine meantime had retired to the northeast, and 2 days later she rejoined, refueling the destroyers once more. He was discovered, used up much of his fuel in high-speed maneuvers while beating off Japanese plane attacks, and canceled the raid. Fletcher, was on its way to the South Pacific. After fueling twice at sea from the Guadalupe Commander H. Thurber it joined the Lexington group under Brown in a raid on 10 March on Salamaua and Lae on the New Guinea coast in which considerable damage was done to enemy naval and transport vessels.
On 12 March the destroyers fueled from the heavy cruisers Indianapolis and Pensacola. Two days later the force was joined by the tankers Neosho Captain J. Phillips and Kaskaskia Commander W. Taylor , and refueled from them during the next 3 days. Then came the very dramatic raid on Tokyo, the comparative value of which may never be fully decided. It kept carriers, tankers, other ships, and planes away from the South Pacific where they might well have been used to turn the balance from defensive to offensive weeks earlier.
However, the heartening effect upon the nation may have been worth it. Redfield , sailed from San Francisco. On 8 April, Cimarron fueled destroyers Gwin. The next day which was set for fueling was too rough. On the 10th the Vincennes was fueled and on the 11th the remaining destroyers took some from the Hornet. There the destroyers and tankers left the striking force and turned back on an easterly course. Then all proceeded to Pearl, where it was hurry up all logistics and get off to the South Pacific where the Japs looked very threatening.
The Hornet had to get new squadrons on board and some task-force and ship reorganization made. Fletcher, with flag in the Yorktown. Fletcher was now senior task-force commander in the South Pacific. The Yorktown had been at sea since 17 February , and since the Salamaua raid had fueled from the Tippecanoe Commander A. Macondray in March, and twice in April from the Platte. On 20 April the group reached Tongatabu, where it found fuel, some mail, and limited amounts and types of provisions, and enjoyed a few days of relaxation after 62 days of tension.
When Fitch left Pearl for the South Pacific, available information indicated early concentration of some enemy force there. Later, at Tongatabu, the news definitely suggested a threat in force by the enemy against Port Moresby on the south coast of New Guinea, and perhaps against New Caledonia or Australia. Meantime, Fletcher at Tongatabu got everything he needed except rest, and sailed 27 April for the Coral Sea.
Fitch was diverted to join him there. On 1 May Fletcher refueled from the tanker Neosho , and during the 2d-3d Fitch did likewise from the Tippecanoe , which then departed for Efate in the New Hebrides. On 5 and 6 May , Task Force Seventeen again refueled in the Coral Sea from the Neosho , which immediately thereafter was sent off to the southeast escorted by the destroyer Sims. The retiring point was not far beyond the range of visibility. The battle of the Coral Sea will not be dealt with here except to note that the Neosho and her escort, the Sims , were discovered and destroyed by the enemy 7 May, and the following day the Lexington was lost and the Yorktown damaged.
Meantime our planes had sunk the small enemy carrier Shoho , and severely mauled and all but sunk one of the two larger Japanese carriers. This apparently was more than the Japanese had bargained for, so the operation was discontinued and the enemy's combat units withdrew. The action therefore became a victory for Fletcher at what was probably the most critical period of the war thus far.
Nevertheless, if the withdrawal had not taken place, how much longer could Fletcher have held his position without a source of fuel near his force? We need not answer the question, but as a lesson for the future let us not forget the inadequacy of logistic support during the most critical battle in the Pacific up to that time. Fletcher's base at Tongatabu was 1, miles away, and Efate, where the nearly empty Tippecanoe had been sent, was more than miles away. Hardly had the smoke cleared away from the Coral Sea when the enemy was detected in preparations for another move in great strength.
This time the objective was diagnosed as Midway, and Task Force Sixteen started out belatedly for the South Pacific, was recalled to Pearl. Fletcher was also ordered to Pearl with his battered Yorktown. There she was hurriedly patched up for the fight to come.
Along with plans for the expected sea and air battle, preparations were being made at CinCPac headquarters for the defense of Midway Island itself. That island needed personnel, planes, antiaircraft guns, ammunition, and certain stores, and needed them in a hurry. The U. Kitty Hawk Commander E.
Rogers had arrived at Pearl on 17 May , and indeed this was fortunate, as few ships at that time had the crane capacity for unloading planes and heavy cargo at the dock at Midway. After unloading her stateside cargo at Pearl, the. She got underway on the 23d and made her highest speed Just 12 minutes after mooring alongside the pier, the Marines started unloading the AA battery and by the next morning it was in place to protect the airfield on San Island. In addition to unloading her important deck cargo she gave the station fuel oil and got clear on the 29th, only a few days before the Battle of Midway commenced.
The Kitty Hawk had rendered substantial logistic support to the defense of Midway. In a congratulatory message to Commander Rogers, CinCPac commented upon the "unusually expeditious unloading at Midway. The task forces which sailed from Pearl on 28 and 30 May to meet the enemy had the tankers Cimarron , Platte , and Guadalupe at sea near them, and refueled on 31 May and 1 June. After the battle, on 8 June , they again refueled a little more than a hundred miles north of Midway Island.
The beaten enemy retired, after losing all four of his participating carriers. Lacking certain information, we did not pursue with all the vigor possible, which is unfortunate for we had air superiority and our fast tankers might well have gone farther west in support of our task force had pursuit been carried somewhat farther.
Here at Midway we lost the Yorktown. We had not yet learned thoroughly the use and value of fleet tugs and salvage action. With the defeat of the Japanese at Midway a more nearly even balance of forces was accomplished, and it was time for us to attempt to take the initiative, to seize the offensive if possible. This was certain to be bitterly contested by the enemy, who might still hope to gain the upper hand if his South Pacific drive could be won. It was natural that this was where we must next stop and defeat him, so the Guadalcanal offensive was planned.
Vice Admiral Robert L. Ghormley since May had been Commander South Pacific. As such, he was charged with the conduct of the Guadalcanal operation under the over-all direction of Admiral Nimitz. Late in July , not counting attack transports, which are considered combatant vessels, we had 15 logistic vessels there. The repair ship Rigel was at Auckland, N. At Tongatabu were the destroyer tender Whitney , hospital ship Solace , stores ship Antares , the fresh and frozen food ships Aldebaran and Talamanca , the ammunition ship Rainier , and two district patrol craft, YP and YP , both with provisions.
The seaplane tender Curtiss and the two small plane tenders McFarland and Mackinac , the former a converted destroyer, based at Noumea, New. Besides these, the fleet oilers Cimarron and Platte were to be at Tongatabu to supply oil for the amphibious force ships staging there late in July, and the fleet oiler Kaskaskia was scheduled to leave Pearl 20 July. At Noumea there were to be , barrels of fuel oil brought by chartered tankers, and the same amount about 2 August.
Reed , with a capacity of 75, barrels, was a station oiler. The vital importance of an adequate supply of fuel, and its timely and properly allocated delivery to the vessels of the South Pacific for the campaign about to begin, was clearly recognized by Admiral Ghormley. The distances involved, the scarcity of tankers, and the consumption of oil by task forces operating at high speeds made the solution of this logistic problem difficult enough if the normal operating consumption was used for estimates.
But what would constitute "normal" when the offensive was under way? Even more difficult to resolve was the margin of safety to cover unforeseen losses, excesses, or changes in operations. Furthermore, though Ghormley foresaw the situation and tried to anticipate it, his logistic planners were too few and had too little experience.
That he had his fuel requirements constantly in mind is shown by his dispatches to Admiral Nimitz. Another thing that worried him was the lack of destroyers for adequate escort and protection of his tankers even when he had the latter. This shortage of destroyers was felt by the task force commanders also, and had considerable influence on all the operations. In a dispatch of 9 July Admiral Nimitz said to Ghormley that he, Commander in Chief Pacific Fleet, would supply the logistic support for the campaign.
Arrangements, he stated, had been made to have the oilers Cimarron and Platte accompany Task Force Eleven leaving Pearl for the South Pacific, and that the Kaskaskia would leave soon after about 20 July. The chartered tankers already mentioned as bringing , barrels of fuel to the port would be followed by others with. Nimitz also promised other requirements, such as aviation gasoline, Diesel fuel, and stores for the task force, would be supplied as Ghormley requested.
All this sounded like a comfortable amount of fuel oil, and based upon past experience, no doubt seemed liberal to the estimators. But past experience was not good enough. On 21 July the Platte was ordered to pump her remaining oil into the Cimarron , proceed to Noumea, and refill there from the waiting chartered tankers. She took aboard 93, barrels of that oil and rejoined Task Force Eleven.